The most historically accurate and authentic Medieval Faire in all of Sydney, thou art invited to cheer on the world’s best jousters as they clash in the Tournament of St Ives, witness battle scenes from history re-enacted by the fiercest of warriors and marvel at the birds of prey as they swoop and attack on command.

St Ives Medieval Faire Website

Witness the Muskateers and their mighty mugs! A display of potatoes, pumpkin and apples with stickers by the VIP tent! See if the Templars are still camp! Plus 1,000 elephants.

When? September 21-22, camping is available on site between Friday night 20/9 and Monday 23/9

A 17th Century battle surrounding the siege of Hertogenbosch at Lithgow.

Please note registrations for individuals closes on 2 February 2019

IronFest, annual thynge at Lithgow showground. 17th C themed battles and camp. Members welcome to attend, (the club will need to know who is attending (there is a risk assessment for the event) for insurance purposes).

The most historically accurate and authentic Medieval Faire in all of Sydney, thou art invited to cheer on the world’s best jousters as they clash in the Tournament of St Ives, witness battle scenes from history re-enacted by the fiercest of warriors and marvel at the birds of prey as they swoop and attack on command.

St Ives Medieval Faire Website

Witness the Muskateers and their mighty mugs! A display of potatoes, pumpkin and apples with stickers by the VIP tent! See if the Templars are still camp! Plus 1,000 elephants.

When? September 22-23, camping is available on site between Friday night 21/9 and Monday 24/9

Two days Four hours of firm drilling.
In preparation for another immaculate drill display at St Ives MedievealandslightlyRenaissancey Fair, a Grand Muster has been arranged.

Late change:
Due to a Genesis-level inundation, the site is unusable and four hours of drill will be held at Lapstone instead. Check your inbox for more details.
A weekend of drill, drill, and more drill, as well as games, archery and the usual camp fayre.

No FIRING of muskets – only drill

You don’t have to stay overnight though, and can come during the day. If you can come only one day, Saturday is best, but whichever. If you want to arrange a billet nearby contact a mountain man.

Outline of program
Friday 22 July afternoon from 4 pm – Travelers from afar are welcome to break their journey at the Lagoon Fortress in the foothills of the Blue Mountains. Book ahead to be fed at Companye expense!

09.00 arrival of the trailer for set-up of tents, canopy, cooking area.
11.00 am sharp on Parade in Full and Complete Kit
Drill, lunch, drill, dinner, drinking

Sunday 24 July
Breakfast, drill, morning tea, drill, lunch, drill, pack down by 3pm

Water, fire
NVG has built up a fireplace area that looks great for both cooking and socialising. There is plenty of firewood.
There’s a water tap hidden in trees on the trail that supplies the site from a rainwater tank at the top of the hill. Bring period water containers.

There’s a nice sloped area away from the camp that would be good for archery, if someone wants to organise that.

Public liability insurance is required for the event. If you have ALHF insurance that’s fine.
Anyone else either has to be confirmed covered by another group for the event or become a temporary member (NB: other insurance may not be valid for individuals reenacting apart from their non-ALHF group). But you may as well join the Routiers and ALHF at very reasonable rates.
Print and bring one of these if you want to JOIN THE LEGEND;

Saturday lunch, dinner, Sunday breakfast, lunch – provided. BYO grog.

Soldiers tent or bring your own. It will be cold.

A fee for food will be charged, hopefully $20-30 max TBC.

More info will be uploaded on the website; and on the Farcebook page. BUT MEMBERS ONLY SECRET INFORMATION will only be sent via the email list.

The Muster will be at a property in Hazelbrook in the Blue Mountains west of Sydney. For directions, please email

Charge to horse and draw your sword, by Jacques de Gheyn, 1610

Have you ever stopped to consider what they thought about armour in the early 17th century, or why so many fines were levied for mustering without armour (and still remain unpaid). The frequent repetition of the requirements for armour may have been more observed in the breach than the observing. Let’s have a look at a small sample of contemporary authors to convey a little of the sort of thinking that was beginning to happen in England. The first few quotes below are from A New Invention of Shooting Fire-Shafts in Longbows in 1628 by “A True Patriot”.

Their weight (I confess) is little to an able man… when slender fare, and hard lodgings abate men’s strength, and the shape of the body must be constrained within the Corslet (as commonly men see in service); and amongst trained soldiers (where Master to his servant or farther to his son deliver arm as they have made them for themselves, or for some other of more unequal stature) … the encumbrance is so great that hardly any patience can endure it long. They foul and fret men’s clothes and add extremities to the excess of cold and heat: so that in winter men are loath to put them on, and in summer they throw them off in spite of all command.

Logistical problems also arise:

The help is, on a march to put them into carts, where either much time must be spent (too precious) to pack them up in order; or they must (as they commonly are) be thrown together on heaps, that when they are taken off again upon occasion, they are so bruised, broken, and confusedly disjointed, that men which put them on seem restrained in irons than harnessed with an armour of defence.

This next one is particularly telling for the archers versus armour brigade, where he states the armour is resistant to arrows, but not bullets…

If armours were musket proof, and men well able to endure them, their use were excellent for many purposes… But light armours (as we now have them) though complete with head-piece, tassets, gauntlets, will be of no defence to an enemy that mingles bullets with his arrows…

So we have the situation where arrows work against unarmoured troops, but you need bullets if the enemy is armoured. John Smythe agrees 1, and gives an example, “But the Duke, at this time Lieutenant General … seeing many Captains and Officers of footman were armed at the proof against the Harquebus, he to the intent to frustrate the resistance of their armours, did increase the numbers of Muskets, the blows of the bullets of which, no armours wearable can resist.” Still, he argues armour has a place in ‘modern’ warfare to protect against bullets at some distance, if Sir Philip Sidney had “worn his cuisses, the bullet had not broken his thigh bone, by reason that the chief force of the bullet … was in a manner past.” Ill arming, he claims, is an encouragement to the enemy.

Maybe you should get that armour after all.

This is the point in the article where I find myself completely unable to resist a couple of diversions on the subject of ballistics: Benjamin Robbins, studying ballistics in the early 18th century, showed Smythe was right. In his tests, the round ball from a musket lost half its speed in the first 100 yards (five score yards), and was no longer lethal against an unarmoured man at not much greater distance. This research lead more or less directly to the design of the Minnie bullet.

Now a diversion on Smythe, who himself is an interesting character. While arguing mainly in favour of retaining archers in the ranks, he dispels the myths put about by proponents on both sides of the argument. He cautions musketeers, “But they must take heed that they do not give their volley… until [the enemy] come within eight, ten
or twelve paces and not eight, ten or twelve scores, as our such men of war do fondly talk and teach”. Later, when setting out the advantages and disadvantages of the musket, the longbow and the caliver, he demolishes the claims of William Neade and others of the pro-archery brigade who claim:

… Some number of archers being chosen, that could with their flights 2 shoot 24 or 20 scores (as there be many that can) may by the same reason fire volleys of flights at their enemies at 18 scores off, which both the one and the other are mockeries to be thought of, because there is no weapon in the field effectual, further than to a convenient and certain distance.

Smythe goes on to tell ‘em they’re dreaming: “…a verie mockerie and dreame to bee thought on.”.

Humfrey Barwick, in A Breefe Discourse (London, 1594) talks about soldiers having 30 arrows sticking out of their armour, where “one Harquebus or musket shot would have dispatched the matter”. Contradicting Robbins’ experimental results, Barwick gives theoretical effective ranges for muskets, “It will kill the armed of proof at ten score yards, the common armours at twenty score, and the unarmed at thirty score” qualifying that these results are conditional on being “well used in bullet and tried powder”. In other words, under lab conditions. Barwick taught musketry to gentlemen, so maybe this may just be a marketing ploy. Either way, both authors show there is no real reason to keep armour as it won’t stop a bullet at a reasonable distance.

Putting this all together, if the arrows can’t pierce armour, and have no effect at longer range, why argue for the keeping of bows? Could it be that there was an expectation that the buggers on the other team weren’t wearing their armour? I’ll give the last words to Smythe. 3

…Archers reduced into their convenient forms, being in so great numbers … do dim the light of the sun, darken the air and cover the earth with their volleys of arrows, eight, nine, ten and eleven scores from them…no numbers of [Horsemen and footmen], being so ill armed as in these days they are, shall be found able to abide the incredible terror of the shot of such infinite numbers 4 of arrows.


1 Smythe, J. Brief Discourses, London, 1590.

2 Light streamlined arrows designed for long distance shooting, mostly used in as an irritant to drive the enemy away, or towards you. Then you use the heavier shafts when you can see the reds of their eyes.

3 Curiously echoed in chapter 1 of Markham’s The Art of Archerie, the only chapter not plagiarised from Ascham’s Toxopholis, the Schoole of Shooting.

4 Infinite, meaning a very large number. I’ve just encountered the same sort of use in my network studies where the phrase “count to infinity” in a network loop means “increment a counter to a very large number, typically between 6 and 15”.

The Historical Exact Militia Program

The ‘historical’ Exact Militia Program was the government policy by which the only true armed forces of the kingdome were re-established after the doldrums of James I reign, re-structured and invigorated and to an extent re-armed with modern standardised weapons.

These quotes are taken from Lindsay Boynton’s The Elizabethan Militia: 1558-1638, London, 1967

“The terms ‘exact’ or ‘perfect’ militia were used synonymously in referring to the ambitious programme of military reform undertaken by King Charles I.”

“Its outlines were simple: a well-disciplined militia was highly desirable both to ensure security at home and to win prestige abroad. Therefore, the King called on his subjects to learn the best modern drill, with the most up-to-date weapons.”

“The drill, as laid down in the 1623 drillbooks, was to be practiced on holidays and at other convenient times, under the eye of experts who were shortly to be seconded from the Low Countries.”

“The programme of the Exact Militia was straightforward enough: its ambitiousness lay in the swift and comprehensive implementation which the government desired.”

“A markedly more intense approach is evident from 1625 under a younger king and a government bent on following a war policy.”


The Current Exact Militia Program

The EMP now encompasses three important elements:

  • How we are organised into division and files, and the responsibilities of the individual field commands,
  • How we are trained and muster, and
  • How we are equipped with weapons and armour, clothing and other accoutrements.

Most importantly it will set the parameters together with the Standing Orders for our portrayal of individuals and a group of 1642.

Training and mustering are explained in the booklet Directions for Musters. This website, together with the linked documents tells what patterns and materials are appropriate, together with handy hints on construction, through to how to legally become a pikeman or musketeer.

The requirements of the Current Exact Militia Program

All arms

THE SWORDDirections for Musters recommends:

 “A good sword of three foot long, cutting and stiff-pointed, with girdle and hangers”.

Judging from the illustrations in Directions for Musters and other sources such as the Great Vellum Book, the style of sword worn by trained bandsmen was a fairly sturdy weapon with a basic hilt and guard and a double edged blade approximately 30 inches long. While the Great Vellum Book shows a couple of members of the Artillery Garden wearing falchions, it is safe to assume that, given the social status of the bands, the majority would had swords and maybe a few rapiers amongst the officers and wealthier members. Hangers, tucks and other cheaply made swords are more likely to have been found amongst the field armies. My advice is, stick to the description in Directions for Musters and select an appropriate hilt type.

SWORD-BELTS & SCABBARDS — While Directions for Musters mentions girdle and hangers i.e. a waist-belt with frogs for the sword, contemporary pictures show that shoulder belts, or baldrics were more common. They should have a belt of 1 – 2 inches in breadth and use either sliders or sewn leather ‘sockets’ to secure the weapon. The scabbards should be either wood covered with leather or leather lined with felt, linen or some other rust inhibiting fabric.

CLOTHING — Trained band musketeers served in their civilian clothing. This should be good quality, middle-class outdoor wear and should consist of a linen shirt, linen drawers, a woollen doublet, woollen breeches, woollen or linen stockings, a pair of shoes and a hat or cap. For cold weather a cassock, coat or cloak is recommended. Your hat should be of felt with a good, stiff brim not too wide. The statuettes in Highgate House suggest hat brims of about three or four inches breadth. Musketeers, whose income permits, are encouraged to wear buffcoats, as these appear to have been very much a feature of London Infantry.

HAVERSACKS — Haversacks are not mentioned in any known documents relating to the London Militia. However, they must have carried their food and spare clothing in some type of bag when out on campaign. Two types of travel bag are known to have been used at this time. Type one was a large square shaped bag worn on the hip with a strap passing over the shoulder. Type two was a sausage bag worn on the back with a strap passing over the shoulder. The latter type appears to have been more popular with soldiers as it does not interfere with the hang and handling of sword and bandelier. The recommended size for these bags is a piece of leather or waxed canvas 3 feet by 2 feet. This is sewn into a tube with a 1 or 1.5 inch strap passing through it. The bottom end of the tube is bound with twine and the top end is opened or closed with a cord, which passes through punched holes rather like a dufflebag.


Directions for Musters, published in 1638, described a musketeer’s principle equipment as follows:

“The musketier must be armed with a good musket (the barrel of 4 foot long, the bore of 12 bullets in the pound rowling in), a rest, bandelier, head-piece, a good sword, girdle & hangers.”

In practise there was considerable variation. Stores of the 1638 pattern Tower Musket held in the Royal Armouries, show that barrel length varied from 41 to 49 inches. The experience of war revealed a preference for muskets with barrels of about 42 inches.

THE MUSKET — Muskets supplied to or purchased by members of the Pike and Musket Society shall be henceforth all of 12 gauge.  The maximum length of the barrel shall be 48 inches. The minimum length shall be 42 inches.  It shall be octagonal.

THE STOCK — The stock style is recommended to be that of the 1638 Tower Musket illustrated on the following page. However, as we are a trained band unit, other English, Dutch or French styles will be permitted provided primary evidence for the design can be supplied.

THE LOCK — Similarly, although matchlocks are preferred, doglocks or wheellocks shall be permitted.

THE BANDOLIER —  The bandolier is to have a strap two inches wide. There is to be a minimum of 12 wooden charges slung from linen cords with leather or brass separator rings, a priming flask, a bullet bag with draw string and button flap large enough to carry 12 bullets plus wadding. The wooden charges are to be: soaked in linseed oil; stained then oiled in linseed or; painted for their protection.  The whole ensemble shall conform to patterns held by the Committee of the Militia.

THE HELMET — This shall be a ‘combed headpiece’ of morion, cabaset of, preferably, English or Dutch pot style. It will be lined, with cheek guards and a strap for securing. It will have a plume holder at the back and is recommended to be of 18-gauge steel. The helmet as with all equipment, must be based on known surviving examples of the period.


THE BREAST and BACK — The breastplate of pikemen’s armour has a strong medial ridge, and the neckline is cut low, as a gorget is worn over the top to protect the throat.  The breast and back are attached together by shoulder straps of leather covered in plate, which fit over a pin on the breast and are fixed in place by swivel-hooks.  The flange at the bottom of the breastplate supports the attachment of the tassets.  These are attached either by rivets or by swivel-hooks through a pin on the flange.

THE TASSETS  — The tassets themselves are large, single plates decorated with simulated lames and patterns of rivets.  The left hand tasset overlaps the right, in order to achieve maximum protection during battle when the pikeman is mostly left foot forward.

THE HEADPIECE — The pikeman’s helmet, or pott, is of a two-piece construction, joined like the lobster pot at the comb, but with a brim all the way round.  It is a very simple form of helmet, with single piece cheek pieces, and usually a plume holder at the back.

THE GORGET  — The gorget consists of two plates which are pivoted on the left-hand side and fastened on the right by means of a keyhole slot and mushroom-headed stud.  These are frequently very simple and plain pieces of armour, but some are designed to be worn alone, perhaps over a buffcoat and can be very fine pieces.